SharePoint is a collaboration environment, but you can use it to store documents. It uses two databases, a configuration database and a content database. You can create a Document Library to keep your records in by Name. You could also create a Document Library for each depertment or each employee (that would get too cumbersome).
It is easy to install and configure, and then creating web sites is all point and click. There is no coding for the most part (unless you really want to get into it.) You can't o relational datbases, however, just flat tables for the most part. But a list of employees with document locations would work if there was more than one doc per employee.